Brent J. Goertzen & Susan M. Fritz
This article reviews the evolution of leader-member exchange theory; examines literature regarding potential effects of gender on quality leader-member exchanges; and discusses implications for practice and future research regarding the role of gender and leader-member exchanges. In general, when dyads were comprised of members of the same gender, they were more likely to report having higher quality LMX. Few studies have examined four dyad combinations (m/m, m/f, f/m f/f) with regard to quality leader-member exchanges. It is recommended that future research examine the role of apparent gender bias in performance evaluations and how this might affect quality leader-member exchanges. Future practice recommendations include the allocation of resources to address the potential relational problems associated with gender and quality leader-member exchanges.
Kay Lynn Kalkowski & Susan M. Fritz
This article begins with a brief overview of motivation theory and then examines the literature, tracing gender-related motivation-to-manage as it evolves through the 1950’s and 1960’s to the present. Although studies have produced conflicting results with some finding that men have more motivation-to-manage than women and other studies finding the opposite, differences appear to be small and closely related to subordinate status and role stereotyping.
Andrea J. Gage, Shelly Mumma & Susan M. Fritz
The authors have analyzed the literature related to four popular theories associated with gender and leadership (Social Role Theory, Implicit Theory, Attribution Theory and Leader Emergence Theory). For the most part, it was determined that the theories had their origins in different academic disciplines, and therefore, have seldom been considered together in solving the gender and leadership puzzle. The authors explore some interesting research questions as well as provide some recommendations for practice.
Kelli S. Smith, Gina S. Matkin & Susan M. Fritz
This article documents the progress of gender and Full-Range Leadership literature. Early research findings, while not mentioning Full-Range Leadership explicitly, provide an important foundation for future work. This is followed by an exploration of the research that specifically explores gender and Full-Range Leadership. The article transitions into the world of work where research is focused on the effect of gender, leader style and expectations about effectiveness of leaders, evaluation of leaders and expectations of males and females in the workplace. The confusing findings in this area lead to more research that incorporates contextual variables into the equation. These are explored and ultimately lead to a discussion of what is still not known about gender and leadership. Recommendations for future research and practice are included.